In today’s world, the power to communicate is at the forefront of every nation’s priorities. Whether it be progressive first-world countries or emerging nations, it serves as a bridge between cultures and ages. It acts as an economic conduit for doing business, allows peace initiatives to materialize and multiplies the power of a generation to educate itself. Therefore it should be no surprise that the need to power these tools of communication has become a race to discover the most sustainable, reliable, reliable power for BTS tower sites.

What are BTS towers?

A Base Transceiver Station (BTS), or cellphone tower, is a structure that holds the radio transceivers that define a cell and coordinates the radio-linked protocols with the mobile device. It consists of an antenna, transceivers, duplexers, and amplifiers.

As part of a cellular network, a BTS has equipment for the encryption and decryption of communications, spectrum filtering equipment, antennas, and transceivers (TRX), to name a few. Its functions remain the same, no matter what type of wireless technology exists.

BTS Towers in China
Photo Credit: www.btssite.com

Sources of Reliable Power for BTS Tower

One is the use of diesel generators. It takes the form of a small power plant. It generates electricity during emergencies when the BTS loses power. It is a fixed generator in rural areas. But, one major drawback of using diesel generators is that they have a high start-up failure. This happens about 15% of the time. To remedy this, a battery bank can substitutes.

Another problem with the diesel generator is that it’s a bit of an environmental hazard. This prompts power supply companies to come up with alternative solutions. They use green and renewable technologies. Wind systems, fuel cells, and photovoltaic energy are all viable candidates. They are easy to access, sustainable, and are low-pollutants.

Photovoltaic cells and wind systems are already on deck. They serve back-up power supplies for diesel generators. Fuel cells present a more long-term solution. They have higher efficiency for conversion. A longer battery life. Silent operation, low-pollutant factors, cheap cost, and it can sit on a roof.

A popular type of fuel cell is the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC). When connected to a solar photovoltaic system, its performance increased 57.26%.

Another method proposed for the Telecom supply system using PEMFC technology. It involves a simple closed-loop and genetic algorithm for an intelligent interfacing unit. It has a power electronic boost converter for power conditioning. It provides optimal voltage control to the DC distribution bus at the Base Transceiver Station. It has tried and proven in a MATLAB/Simulink platform. It showed promising results in sustaining the power of telecom towers.

Still, another is an onsite Hydrogen generator for fuel cells. Two studies complete to explore this method. And both proved that Hydrogen is reliable power for BTS tower sites.

Yet one more is a hybrid renewable energy plant that uses a wind turbine, photovoltaic panels, fuel cells, and the HOMER Software System. This method proved to lessen pollutants caused by diesel generators.

PEMFCs have no moving parts. This makes them impervious to wear and tear. They also operate at lower temperatures, which means less stress on their parts and slower warming up times.

PEMFC TO POWER BTS TOWERS
Photo Credit: ars.els-cdn.com

PEMFCs feed on Hydrogen, which exists in either biofuels or gas. It emanates through several electrolyzing processes. It has shown that the combination of PEFMCs inside the BTS towers can provide a renewable energy source for Reliable Power for BTS TowerBTS distribution bus in a lot of its operations. But several studies have shown that this method has certain drawbacks. , that the power output of PEMFCs can react oscillations in voltage and temperature. The solution to this is a new boost converter interfacing unit.

A boost converter is a device that elevates the voltage to a set level in the DC bus. New research sheds light on an algorithm called the Owl Search Algorithm. It utilizes the control of the boost component. This then allows it to provide a quicker response time for the dynamic of the interfacing unit. It also controls the DC distribution voltage. As well as safeguarding the system. While it undergoes output oscillations of the PEMFC during load variations.

Here is a summary of these proposals:

-Nominating a new optimization algorithm for the PI Controller on the boost converter

-Correcting the flaws in the Owl Search Algorithms based on Chaos Theory and LV mechanisms

-Designing a new clean configuration based on the PEMFC for the telecom

-Scrutinizing the new optimized method based on different voltage and load fluctuations

A 48V DC is an optimal voltage used by the BTS distribution system based on its high voltage and security. POL (Point of Load Converters) are harnessed for generating the electronic equipment energy of the DC bus.

In this sort of set-up, a Switch Mode Power Converter (SMPC) takes over as the electronic power supply for the system to be able to use a switching regulator that converts electrical power evenly to the distribution bus of the BTS.

The SMPC serves as a filter for the input source and load oscillations, to achieve a more streamlined adjusted voltage at the DC bus. Its sensitivity is proportional to the voltage oscillations.

PEMFCs represents one of the cleanest sources of energy for the near future. However, hot on its heels is the method of harnessing Hydrogen as a source of renewable energy. With chemical reactions between Hydrogen and air going off in the catalytic layer of the polymer membrane, fuel cells become easier to operate. It also gives sensors the ability to put out several megawatts to be used in several applications, including propulsion for transportation. PEMFCs convert oxygen and hydrogen into electricity and water.

A Boost Switching Converter is a device that amps up the input voltage level to the output while minimizing current. It’s made of two semiconductors, one diode, and one transistor. Capacitor filters are attached to the inputs and outputs of switching converters to lessen the ripple voltage.

This device can be attached to DC sources like fuel cells, batteries, solar panels, rectifiers, and DC generators. DC/DC conversion is the method in which a specific DC voltage converts to another DC voltage at a different level. Switching the converter on closes the circuit between the induction form and the source of the voltage. The energy is contained in the indicator. Upon switching off the circuit, the energy is released. This is the reason why the output voltage converter has a higher level than the input voltage. The voltage level is then read and transmitted to the comparator to calculate the error value. The signal goes to a PI controller for adjustment of the output voltage. PIs, not PIDs are used because PIDs increase the high-frequency noise in boost converters. PIDs may also cause disruption during sudden variations in the input reference. When this happens, it will saturate the converter. Modulators are calibrated to generate the perfect PWM signal for activating the MOSFET.

A regulating unit is composed of the boost converter and an optimization algorithm. It controls the source and load voltages by elevating voltage levels. The distribution DC bus used by a BTS needs a stable 48V DC power source. This can be generated by the boost converter by generating a low oscillation at the output. The system used should be able to recover after unexpected interruption with as little adjustment time as possible. This is why closed-loop control systems exist.

There is also a recent emergence of experimentation with bio-inspired techniques for powering BTS. They exude energy by replicating natural phenomena. These are called metaheuristic methods. Exploration and diversity are the hallmarks of this method.

One of these methods is the use of the Owl Search Algorithm (OSA). It is inspired by the hunting methods of owls. It is predicated on their auditory functions. The way they hear their prey and navigate to capture it. As with most bio-oriented optimization algorithms, Owl Search Algorithm calculates the number and position of prey, in relation to the dimensional search space. Technology researchers have assigned values and integers to a specific aspect of the owl’s navigation matrix and used this in relation to energy-based power calculations. The equations for it are long and complicated. But this specific method is worthy of mention because of its growing popularity and its reported effectiveness in harnessing electrical systems.

Solar powered BTS Tower
Photo credit: 4.imimg.com

The basic make-up of an electrical supply system consists of a boost converter, modulator, comparator, and a controller. MOSFET tunes the boost converter and turns it on and off.

These are only a few of the methods of reliable power for BTS tower sites. Some of these techniques are still in their experimental stage. While others are already being harnessed in the field. Whatever stage of development they are in, all these techniques contribute to the potential of harnessing varied technologies that assure the existence of our communications network. We hope this article was both enlightening and helpful.


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